Introduction ::PakistanBackground:The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. In January 2012, Pakistan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.Geography ::PakistanLocation:Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the northGeographic coordinates:30 00 N, 70 00 EArea:total: 796,095 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 36land: 770,875 sq kmwater: 25,220 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly less than twice the size of CaliforniaLand boundaries:total: 6,774 kmborder countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 kmCoastline:1,046 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental marginClimate:mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in northTerrain:flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in westElevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 mhighest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 mNatural resources:land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestoneLand use:arable land: 26.02%permanent crops: 1.05%other: 72.93% (2011)Irrigated land:199,900 sq km (2008)Total renewable water resources:246.8 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 183.5 cu km/yr (5%/1%/94%)per capita: 1,038 cu m/yr (2008)Natural hazards:frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)Environment - current issues:water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertificationEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: Marine Life ConservationGeography - note:controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian SubcontinentPeople and Society ::PakistanNationality:noun: Pakistani(s)adjective: PakistaniEthnic groups:Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%Languages:Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%Religions:Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)Population:193,238,868 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 6Age structure:0-14 years: 34% (male 33,774,720/female 31,967,787)15-24 years: 21.6% (male 21,560,699/female 20,223,691)25-54 years: 35.1% (male 35,272,193/female 32,587,417)55-64 years: 5% (male 4,767,260/female 4,832,047)65 years and over: 4.3% (male 3,877,418/female 4,375,636) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 61.8 %youth dependency ratio: 54.7 %elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 %potential support ratio: 14.1 (2013)Median age:total: 22.2 yearsmale: 22.2 yearsfemale: 22.3 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.52% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 78Birth rate:23.76 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 69Death rate:6.69 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 142Net migration rate:-1.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 160Urbanization:urban population: 36.2% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 2.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:Karachi 13.125 million; Lahore 7.132 million; Faisalabad 2.849 million; Rawalpindi 2.026 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 832,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:22.7 (2007 est.)Maternal mortality rate:260 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 44Infant mortality rate:total: 59.35 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 25male: 62.56 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 55.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.71 yearscountry comparison to the world: 167male: 64.84 yearsfemale: 68.66 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.96 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 62Contraceptive prevalence rate:27% (2007/08)Health expenditures:2.2% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 188Physicians density:0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2009)Hospital bed density:0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 96% of populationrural: 89% of populationtotal: 92% of populationunimproved:urban: 4% of populationrural: 11% of populationtotal: 8% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 72% of populationrural: 34% of populationtotal: 48% of populationunimproved:urban: 28% of populationrural: 66% of populationtotal: 52% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 154HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:98,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 42HIV/AIDS - deaths:5,800 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fevervectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malariaanimal contact disease: rabiesnote: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:5.5% (2008)country comparison to the world: 153Children under the age of 5 years underweight:30.9% (2011)country comparison to the world: 14Education expenditures:2.4% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 161Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 54.9%male: 68.6%female: 40.3% (2009 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 8 yearsmale: 8 yearsfemale: 7 years (2011)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 7.7%country comparison to the world: 121male: 7%female: 10.5% (2008)Government ::PakistanCountry name:conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistanconventional short form: Pakistanlocal long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistanlocal short form: Pakistanformer: West PakistanGovernment type:federal republicCapital:name: Islamabadgeographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 Etime difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindhnote: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-BaltistanIndependence:14 August 1947 (from British India)National holiday:Republic Day, 23 March (1956)Constitution:12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored 15 December 2007; last amended 28 February 2012Legal system:common law system with Islamic law influenceInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-MuslimsExecutive branch:chief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 5 June 2013)cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assemblyelection results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED 77 votesLegislative branch:bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve five-year terms)elections: Senate - last held on 2 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2015); National Assembly - last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 41, PML-N 14, ANP 12, JUI-F 7, MQM 7, PML-Q 5, BNP-A 4, NPP 1, PML-F 1, independents 12; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party as of June 2013) - PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independents 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-MuslimsJudicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member Majlis-e-Shoora (parliamentary) Committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of several judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.Political parties and leaders:Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-ABalochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-MJamaat-i Islami or JI [Syed Munawar HASAN]Jamhoori Watan Party or JWPJamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazl-ur REHMAN]Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]Jamiat-i Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Abul Khair ZUBAIR]Millat-e-Jafferia [Allama Sajid NAQVI]Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]National Peoples Party or NPPPakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i Azam or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]Pakistan Peoples Party-S [Aftab Ahmad SHERPAO]Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequentlyPolitical pressure groups and leaders:other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchantsInternational organization participation:ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (acting) Asad KHANchancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 243-6500FAX:  (202) 686-1534consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (CA)consulate(s): Chicago, HoustonDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Richard OLSONembassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabadmailing address: 8100 Islamabad Pl., Washington, DC 20521-8100telephone:  (51) 208-0000FAX:  (51) 227-6427consulate(s) general: Karachiconsulate(s): Lahore, PeshawarFlag description:green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of IslamNational symbol(s):star and crescentNational anthem:name: ""Qaumi Tarana"" (National Anthem)lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLAnote: adopted 1954; the anthem is also known as ""Pak sarzamin shad bad"" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)Economy ::PakistanEconomy - overview:Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, and Pakistan's failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty - the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10% in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis. Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging about $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan's current account turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year from 2008 to 2012. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.GDP (purchasing power parity):$523.9 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 28$505.3 billion (2011 est.)$490.4 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$231.9 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:3.7% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 923% (2011 est.)3.1% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$2,900 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 178$2,900 (2011 est.)$2,900 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:11.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12011.9% of GDP (2011 est.)14.6% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 87.3%government consumption: 8.3%investment in fixed capital: 10.9%investment in inventories: 1.6%exports of goods and services: 12.5%imports of goods and services: -20.6%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 20.1%industry: 25.5%services: 54.4% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggsIndustries:textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimpIndustrial production growth rate:3.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 80Labor force:59.21 millioncountry comparison to the world: 10note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 45.1%industry: 20.7%services: 34.2% (2010 est.)Unemployment rate:6.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 645.6% (2011 est.)note: substantial underemployment existsPopulation below poverty line:22.3% (FY05/06 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.9%highest 10%: 39.3% (FY05/06)Distribution of family income - Gini index:30.6 (FY07/08)country comparison to the world: 11341 (FY98/99)Budget:revenues: $27.48 billionexpenditures: $42.15 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:11.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 202Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-6.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 182Public debt:50.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 6649.4% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:1 July - 30 JuneInflation rate (consumer prices):9.7% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 19711.9% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:12% (31 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1314% (31 December 2010 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:12.41% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5514.12% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$62.29 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 44$56.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$76.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 58$71.36 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$94.65 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 52$86.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$32.76 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 55$38.17 billion (31 December 2010)$33.24 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:-$4.632 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 163$268 million (2011 est.)Exports:$24.63 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72$26.31 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugsExports - partners:US 13.3%, China 10.9%, UAE 8.6%, Afghanistan 8.5% (2012)Imports:$39.81 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 61$38.85 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, teaImports - partners:China 19.8%, Saudi Arabia 12%, UAE 11.9%, Kuwait 6.2% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$13.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 69$18.09 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$56.19 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 58$60.18 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$22.72 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 67$21.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.495 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 73$1.432 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -93.3952 (2012 est.)86.3434 (2011 est.)85.194 (2010 est.)81.71 (2009)70.64 (2008)Energy ::PakistanElectricity - production:94.65 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Electricity - consumption:70.1 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 38Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 117Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 119Electricity - installed generating capacity:20.2 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 36Electricity - from fossil fuels:65.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 126Electricity - from nuclear fuels:2.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 26Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:32.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 68Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Crude oil - production:63,080 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 166Crude oil - imports:183,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Crude oil - proved reserves:480.9 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 51Refined petroleum products - production:215,900 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 52Refined petroleum products - consumption:426,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Refined petroleum products - exports:26,830 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 69Refined petroleum products - imports:195,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 25Natural gas - production:42.9 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 23Natural gas - consumption:42.9 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 23Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 160Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 115Natural gas - proved reserves:753.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 29Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:151.6 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 33Communications ::PakistanTelephones - main lines in use:5.867 million (2012)country comparison to the world: 29Telephones - mobile cellular:125 million (2013)country comparison to the world: 9Telephone system:general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, exceeding 110 million by the end of 2011, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; more than 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areasinternational: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2011)Broadcast media:media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 5 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 40 stations; nearly 100 commercially licensed privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2007)Internet country code:.pkInternet hosts:365,813 (2012)country comparison to the world: 57Internet users:20.431 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 20Transportation ::PakistanAirports:151 (2013)country comparison to the world: 37Airports - with paved runways:total: 108over 3,047 m: 152,438 to 3,047 m: 201,524 to 2,437 m: 43914 to 1,523 m: 20under 914 m: 10 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 432,438 to 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 9914 to 1,523 m: 9under 914 m:24 (2013)Heliports:23 (2013)Pipelines:gas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013)Railways:total: 7,791 kmcountry comparison to the world: 27broad gauge: 7,479 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge (2007)Roadways:total: 260,760 kmcountry comparison to the world: 20paved: 180,910 km (includes 711 km of expressways)unpaved: 79,850 km (2007)Merchant marine:total: 11country comparison to the world: 110by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin QasimMilitary ::PakistanMilitary branches:Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2013)Military service age and obligation:16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors; the Pakistan Air Force recruits aviation technicians at age 15; service obligation (Navy) 10-18 years; retirement required after 18-30 years service or age 40-52 (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 48,453,305females age 16-49: 44,898,096 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 37,945,440females age 16-49: 37,381,549 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 2,237,723female: 2,104,906 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:3.1% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 38Transnational Issues ::PakistanDisputes - international:various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on mapsRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 2.9 million (1.9 million registered, 1 million undocumented ) (Afghanistan) (2013)IDPs: 758,000 (primarily includes IDPs who remain displaced by conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province that peaked in 2009) (2013)Illicit drugs:significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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PAKISTAN — Le Pakistan est né de la volonté des musulmans de l’Inde anglaise d’obtenir un «État séparé». La création de celui ci a été réclamée dans les dernières années d’existence de l’Empire des Indes par la Ligue musulmane de Mohammed Jinnah, qui avait… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Pakistan — prop. n. A country in South Asia formerly part of British India. Syn: West Pakistan. [WordNet 1.5] Note: Data on Pakistan from the CIA WOrld Factbook, 1996 Geography: Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India and Iran… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
PAKISTAN — PAKISTAN, Islamic republic, S. Asia, established in 1947 after the partition of India. At the beginning of the 20th century, the largest city, Karachi, had about 2,500 Jews engaged as tradesmen, artisans, and civil servants. Their mother tongue… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Pakistán — Esta es la grafía más extendida en español para el nombre de este país asiático, que coincide, además, con la de su nombre oficial; se desaconseja, por ello, la grafía alternativa y minoritaria Paquistán. Este topónimo puede usarse precedido de… … Diccionario panhispánico de dudas
Pakistan — Pȁkistān m DEFINICIJA geogr. država u J Aziji s izlazom na Arapsko more, 796.095 km2, 127.962.000 stan., glavni grad Islamabad SINTAGMA Istočni Pakistan pov. I dio Pakistana 1947 1971, otada Bangladeš … Hrvatski jezični portal
Pakistan — south Asian nation formed 1947 by division of British India, the name apparently proposed 1930s by Muslim students at Cambridge University, first element said to be an acronym from Punjab, Afghanistan and Kashmir, three regions envisioned as… … Etymology dictionary
Pakistan — [pak′i stan΄, pä′ki stän΄] country in S Asia, on the Arabian Sea: formed from parts of former British India, it became a dominion (1947 56) & a republic (1956 72; 1989 99) of the Commonwealth: 307,293 sq mi (795,886 sq km); pop. 131,500,000; cap … English World dictionary
Pakistan — This article is about the nation of Pakistan. For other uses, see Pakistan (disambiguation) and Pakistani (disambiguation). Islamic Republic of Pakistan … Wikipedia
Pakistan — /pak euh stan , pah keuh stahn /, n. 1. Islamic Republic of, a republic in S Asia, between India and Afghanistan: formerly part of British India; known as West Pakistan from 1947 71 to distinguish it from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).… … Universalium
Pakistan — اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان Islāmī Ǧumhūriya i Pākistān (Urdu) Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Engl.) Islamische Republik Pakistan … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pakistan — اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان (ur) Islāmī Jumhūrīyah Pākistān (ur) Islamic … Wikipédia en Français